Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Soilsaround elbasan industrial area, in Albania

Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Elbasan industrial area, in Albania

Jonida Tahiraj, Elda Marku, Georg Raber

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been recognized to cause serious health and environmental problems due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. For the first time, a comprehensive study was conducted in Elbasan district in order to know the current situation concerning PAH levels in this area which is under the influence of the metallurgical activity since 1976, currently operated by a Turkish company. 36 surface soil samples were collected in total in urban, agricultural and industrial areas, in March 2017. The samples were ultra-sonicated with dichloromethane, and the extracts were analyzed using an Agilent 7890A gas chromatograph equipped with a quadrupole Mass Spectrometer 5975C. High levels of contamination were observed at station 7 (Coke Plant) and station 10 (Refractory Brick and Carbon Mass Plant), where the mean concentration of 14 PAHs was in range 17235 µg/kg and 1635 µg/kg (dry weight), respectively. PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five- ring PAHs, contributing to 37%, 41 % and 42% of the total PAHs content at the industrial, urban and agricultural areas respectively. The sum of the 14 PAHs in the industrial area were considerably higher than those in urban and agricultural areas. The diagnostic molecular ratios revealed that the sources of PAHs were of mixed origin. The highest sum of the 7 carcinogenic PAHs was found in the industrial area. In general, the PAH concentrations in this study were below the maximum PAH concentrations allowed by the Canadian legislation for soils.

Keywords: PAH, Soil pollution, GC-MS, Industrial, Ultrasonic extraction

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 90-95

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.014

Indoor Dust Direct Examination (E.D.P.A.®) and biotic pollution in confined environments

Indoor Dust Direct Examination (E.D.P.A.®) and biotic pollution in confined environments

Simona Principato, Mario Principato, Luca Stingeni, Gabriele Mannucci, Iolanda Moretta

Indoor biotic pollution is a condition in which living organisms cause infestations in confined environments. They are often represented by insects and mites of medical, agri-food, industrial or forensic interest, depending on the environment and on the point of view taken into consideration. Indoor infestations can generate several different problems, especially for people’s health, due to the unavoidable interaction between humans and arthropods. The Indoor Dust Direct Examination (E.D.P.A.®) is a patented diagnostic method that enables to detect the traces left by insects and mites in confined environments and to isolate and identify the agent suspected to be the cause of an infestation by examining dust samples simply collected from the floor of every indoor area. Most cases of dermatitis of unknown environmental origin, for example, can be correctly diagnosed thanks to the E.D.P.A.®, that allows to identify the aetiologic agent, to discover where it is located, to discern if it is of indoor or outdoor origin and then to act with a targeted intervention to remove the cause, thus achieving spontaneous healing of dermopathy. In the agri-food field, the E.D.P.A.® enables to locate sites of larval infestation, to identify the species, to discover the origin of pests and to calculate the time of the infestation, in order to have the storage and the production sites of the factory under control. In the forensic field, the E.D.P.A.® can give also its contribution, allowing to find out if an indoor area of interest has been altered, by studying the biotic traces detected in the dust, such as arthropods, pollens, skin scales or other ones, discerning between their indoor or outdoor origin, evaluating their different concentrations, providing useful diagnostic data for further more detailed investigations. In conclusion, it is possible to successfully monitor the biotic pollution of any indoor environment for different purposes by examining dust samples with the E.D.P.A.® method.

Keywords: Indoor biotic pollution, Indoor Dust Direct Examination (E.D.P.A.®), Pathogenic arthropods, pests

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 83-89

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.013

An atmospheric simulation chamber to investigate dustborne microbiota composition and viability

An atmospheric simulation chamber to investigate dustborne microbiota composition and viability

Maddalena Oliva, Antonio Comite, Silvia Giulia Danelli, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa

Dust storm activity from the largest deserts on the earth, in particular from the North Africa regions, is the principal source of dust in the atmosphere, capable of dust dispersion and transport over very long distances. Dust clouds may contain high concentrations of microbiota, e.g. fungal spores, plant pollen, algae, bacteria. Bioaerosols associated with dust events can spread pathogens over long distances and can impact ecosystems equilibria, human health and yield of agricultural products.

For many microorganisms long-range and high-altitude transport in the free atmosphere can be very stressful due to strong ultraviolet radiation, low humidity (inducing desiccation), too low or too high temperatures, and complex atmospheric chemistry (e.g. presence of reactive radicals).

Only specially resistant organisms are able to survive, so microbiota population composition changes during the long airborne transport to the final site of deposition.

In this work we summarize the principal characteristics of ChAMBRe (Chamber for Aerosol Modelling and Bio-aerosol Research), an atmospheric chamber facility recently designed and implemented at the Environmental Physics Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Genoa, in cooperation with INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics) to investigate bioaerosol evolution and transformation under different atmospheric conditions.

Here we present the experimental setup and some protocols established to analyze Gram-positive and Gram-negative model bacteria, Bacillus Subtilis and Escherichia Coli respectively, focusing in particular on the use of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques.

Keywords: Atmospheric simulation chambers, Bio-aerosol;bacteria, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 77-82

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.012

Chemical and mineralogical analyses of Cement-Kiln- Dust (CKD) and its potential impact on the environment

Chemical and mineralogical analyses of Cement-Kiln- Dust (CKD) and its potential impact on the environment

Rotimi O. Oduola

Cement-kiln-dust (CKD), a by-product of cement production, is generated and disposed off in piles at different cement factory sites in Nigeria, raising environmental concerns. About 25% of every tonne of raw materials fed into the kiln during cement production results in CKD waste. Dust recycling has been employed in the past by many cement plants in the country to curtail their environmental effects but despite this, large quantities of CKD are still being produced. The wastes are suspended in air as particulates during dry weather causing air pollution, or deposited on plants and roofs of buildings. The dusts are also washed into surface and groundwater during rains thereby polluting the water sources particularly around the factories. An intensive study is currently being conducted to find a productive use for this waste in civil engineering construction and this paper presents the results of chemical and mineralogical analyses of CKD with a view of determining their impact on the environment. Tests conducted on CKD samples collected from Lafarge Cement Plant Shagamu, Nigeria were chemical analysis using X-ray Flourescence (XRF), microstructural analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mineralogical analysis using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). From these analyses, results showed that the CKD contained lime, CaO, as the predominating elemental oxide among the major oxides present with a value of 68.44% while silica oxide, aluminium oxide and ferric oxide were 12.80%, 5.90% and 4.01% respectively. The SEM analysis showed the presence of fine and dense crystalline microstructure of mineral particles. XRD results showed that minerals present were antigorite, mordenite, chrysolite, sanidine, etc. The high lime content indicate that soil, surface and groundwater sources will have a high pH values and which may have both short-term and long-term implications on both plants and animals in the affected areas, however, further studies shall reveal the implications of these on the environment.

Keywords: Cement-kiln-dust, Chemicals, Mineralogy, Pollution, Environment

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 69-76

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.011

Contribution of atmospheric deposition to soil provisioning ecosystem services in the contiguous United States: Part 1. Calcium

Contribution of atmospheric deposition to soil provisioning ecosystem services in the contiguous United States: Part 1. Calcium

Elena Mikhailova, Michael Cope, Garth Groshans, Christopher Post, Mark Schlautman, Lisha Zhang

Soil provisioning ecosystem services may be impacted by the atmospheric deposition of calcium ions (Ca2+). Atmospheric deposition can serve as an input of Ca2+ to soils; however, deposition varies spatially across the United States (U.S.). This study ranked an estimated provisioning value of soil ecosystem services due to atmospheric Ca2+ deposition within the contiguous U.S. by state and region. The total provisioning ecosystem value of atmospheric calcium deposition was $65M (i.e., 65 million U.S. dollars) based on an average 2014 price of $10.42 per U.S. ton of agricultural limestone (CaCO3) or nearly $355M based on an average 2014 price of $33.00 per U.S. ton gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). The highest ranked regions for total value of Ca2+ deposition were: 1) Northern Plains, 2) Midwest and 3) South Central while the highest ranked regions based on area-normalized values were: 1) South Central, 2) Midwest and 3) Northern Plains. The highest ranked states for total value of Ca2+ deposition were: 1) Texas, 2) Kansas and 3) New Mexico while the highest ranked states based on area-normalized values were: 1) Kansas, 2) Iowa and 3) Illinois. The results of this study begin to provide an estimated value of the importance of atmospheric calcium deposition when assessing ecosystem services. The potential impacts on society from this research include adding calcium deposition into the ecosystem services framework for the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals.

Keywords: Agriculture, Calcium, Fertility, Fertilization, Food security, Gypsum, Land use, Market failure, Soil inorganic carbon (SIC), STATSGO

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 58-68

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.010

Contribution of atmospheric deposition to soil provisioning ecosystem services in the contiguous United States: Part 2. Magnesium

Contribution of atmospheric deposition to soil provisioning ecosystem services in the contiguous United States: Part 2. Magnesium

Garth Groshans, Elena Mikhailova, Christopher Post, Mark Schlautman, Michael Cope, Lisha Zhang

Magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency commonly occurs in more than half of the global population based on dietary reference intakes set by the United States and Canada.  Atmospheric deposition provides provisioning ecosystem service value to society; however, spatial distribution of atmospheric Mg2+ deposition varies in the United States.  This study ranked the provisioning ecosystem services value of atmospheric Mg2+ deposition in the United States by soil order, state, and region.  The total value of provisioning ecosystem services contributed from atmospheric Mg2+ deposition was 47M (i.g., 47 million U.S. dollars) based on a national average price (2014) of $12.90 per U.S. ton of agricultural dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2).  Regions with the highest ranked for total value of Mg2+ deposition were: 1) South Central, 2) West, and 3) Southeast, while the highest ranked regions based on area-normalized values were: 1) South Central, 2) Southeast, and 3) East.  The highest ranked states for total value of Mg2+ deposition were: 1) Texas, 2) Florida, and 3) California, while the highest ranked states based on area-normalized values were: 1) Florida, 2) Louisiana, and 3) Texas. The results of this study show the importance of assessing atmospherically deposited Mg2+ ions for the ecosystem services framework.  The potential impacts on society from this research including adding atmospheric Mg2+ deposition to the ecosystem services framework and increasing the betterment of health and well-being for the global population.

Keywords: Agriculture, Dolomite,  Fertility, Fertilization, Food security, Land use, Magnesium, Market failure, Soil inorganic carbon (SIC), STATSGO

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 52-57

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.009

Detection of metallic iron in urban dust by magnetic methods and microscopic observations

Detection of metallic iron in urban dust by magnetic methods and microscopic observations

Beata Górka-Kostrubiec, Tomasz Werner, Sylwia Dytłow, Iga Szczepaniak- Wnuk, Maria Jeleńska, Aneta Hanc-Kuczkowska

A thermomagnetic study was performed to identify the magnetic mineralogy of urban dust (indoor dust, outdoor dust, street dust, and dust from cabin air cars filters) collected from different environments. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility (T) and induced magnetization M(T) were measured in the range of 30–700 °C and 30–800 °C, respectively. The presence of a “tail” in the heating curve of (T) between 600 °C and 700 °C is very often interpreted in the literature as evidence for the presence of hematite. However, the thermomagnetic curve of M(T) measured in the wider temperature range of up to 800 °C revealed that the Curie temperature of ~760 °C is typical of metallic iron. The presence of Fe-rich elongated shaving-like magnetic particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy observations. In various types of urban dust, the presence of metallic Fe can be due to traffic-related pollution as the concentration of elemental iron correlates with the key heavy metals Cu, Pb, Ba, Mn, Cr, and Zn, emitted by motor vehicles.

Keywords: Magnetic methods, Anthropogenic magnetic particles, Metallic iron, Traffic related heavy metals

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 46-51

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.008

Atmospheric deposition of cosmic dust studied by moss analysis

Atmospheric deposition of cosmic dust studied by moss analysis

Marina Frontasyeva, Vladimir Tselmovich, Sergey Pavlov, Omari Chaligava, Eiliv Steinnes

Experimental observations of cosmic dust (micrometeorites) in terrestrial moss samples collected in Arctic (Northern Norway), Antarctic (King George Island), highlands of Caucasus (Georgia), in pristine lowlands of Central Europe (Belarus and Tver region in Russia) are reported. The identification of particles as micrometeorites is based on their compositional, mineralogical, and texture analyses using microscopy of (SEM and EDAX techniques). A majority of the particles undergo melting during their passage of the atmosphere. Most abundantly, particularly at large sizes, cosmic spherules, i.e. completely melted droplets, were observed. These spherical particles provide a useful proxy for the total flux of dust because they are relatively easy to identify. They are the background magnetic component of cosmic dust, mainly microspheres and particles of native metals. Most often, it was possible to detect native Fe, Fe-Ni, and Fe-Cr minerals.

Keywords: Cosmic dust, Micrometeorites, Elemental analysis, SEM, EDAX

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 37-45

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.007

Comparison of traffic-related pollution level using street dust and passive dust samplers

Comparison of traffic-related pollution level using street dust and passive dust samplers

Sylwia Dytłow, Beata Górka-Kostrubiec

The magnetic susceptibility and concentrations of traffic-related heavy metalswere used to compare the pollution level estimated for street dust (SD) and passive dust samplers (PDS) collected from 24 sampling sites in Warsaw (Poland). It was shownthat the disadvantages of SD disturb the assessment of the real traffic-related pollution level. The application of SD is limited because of unknown accumulation time, difficulties in the estimation of background values of heavy metals, and the strong influence of geological backgrounds and weather conditions. As an alternative to SD, we propose PDS as a more universal study material, which effectively reflects the pollution level and has well-defined initial concentrations of heavy metals obtainedbefore the exposition on pollution.

Keywords: Passive dust sampler, Heavy metals, Street dust, Magnetic susceptibility, Environmental magnetism

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 31-36

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.006

Major Oxide Chemistry of Mineral Dust, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Revisited

Major Oxide Chemistry of Mineral Dust, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Revisited

Melisa A. Diaz, W. Berry Lyons, Byron J. Adams, Susan A. Welch, Alia L. Khan, Diane M. McKnight, S. Craig Cary

At the 2014 DUST meeting some of the first geochemical data of aeolian materials from the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica were presented. The MDV is the largest ice-free area in Antarctica, and the transport and deposition of windblown materials are thought to play an important role in landscape connectivity, which in turn has important ecological consequences. The previous work was on samples collected only 30cm off the ground and probably represents material transported primarily by saltation. In this study, we have collected samples at multiple heights, including at 100cm above the ground surface. Samples were collected during two different periods during 2013–2015. Bulk samples were analyzed by XRF techniques for major oxides. The CIAs of the aeolian material indicate little chemical weathering, and the values varied little with respect to height above the surface. The least weathered material comes from the highest elevation valleys, where liquid water is thought to be less available for chemical weathering to occur. These data are similar to those reported for the original, 30cm height samples, and are most similar to the local Ferrar Dolerite. Additionally, Al2O3:TiO3 values indicate differences in the weathering of available materials spatially, particularly with height above the surface. These data indicate multiple terrestrial sources contributing to the geochemistry of aeolian material, even in cold and arid environments.

Keywords: Antarctica, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Bulk geochemistry, Chemical weathering

Proscience vol. 5

Pp 25-30

DOI:10.14644/dust.2018.005

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