ProScience vol.3

ProScience – vol. 3, Pages 1-128 (28 December 2016)
Editor: Saverio Fiore

Conference Proceedings
2nd International Conference on Atmospheric Dust – DUST2016

ISSN: 2283-5954

Copyright © Author(s) 2016. Published by Digilabs S.a.s.

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Christos D. Argyropoulos, Mishma Abraham, Hala Hassan, Atif Ashraf, Eleni Fthenou, Eman Sadoun, Konstantinos E. Kakosimos

Pp 1-6


A methodology is presented for investigating particulate matter (PM) building ingress during a dust storm event in Doha, Qatar, by using advanced numerical modelling techniques. More specifically, a combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and multi-zone models were used. The first is adopted for computing the external wind pressures including the meteorological effects, while the latter is a multi-zone model for indoor air quality (IAQ). The use of QUIC-CFD model improves the computation of wind pressures, velocities and pollutant concentrations, while the outputs of CFD model can be used as inputs to CONTAM. This combination is superior for more realistic predictions of airflow and pollutant transport in large buildings. The numerical predictions obtained are compared with measurement data during the dust storm event, presenting satisfactory agreement.

Keywords: Dust storm; Indoor air quality; Infiltration; Modelling; QUIC; CONTAM

Benoît Brandelet, Christophe Rose, Caroline Rogaume, Yann Rogaume

Pp 7-12


The fossil resources depletion led the world to use increasingly renewable energy. The first renewable energy is the wood energy, especially the domestic one. This energy transition has to be realized while taking account every environmental issues, like the air quality. Nevertheless, the domestic wood energy is one of the most important sources of fine particles emissions. In this study the particles emitted by each phase of the combustion of a log were characterised. The Total Suspended Particles, the granulometric and the organic and elemental carbon composition of the particles were followed.

Keywords: Biomass; Energy; Log Stove; Particles; OC/EC; SEM; EDS

Matthias Budde, Marcel Köpke, Michael Beigl

Pp 13-20


Air quality is an aspect that gains more and more attention in the general public, as knowledge on the harmful effects on human health and the environment increase. Along with this, interest in low-cost instrumentation that enables end-users to measure particulate matter has grown, both for individuals, as well as for the use in distributed sensing scenarios. In this paper, we report on the design of an ultra-low-cost clip-on sensor for light-scattering particle measurements with camera smartphones. We present three design iterations and discuss the lessons learned during the design process and advantages and drawbacks of different design decisions. Aside from the specific hardware design, we discuss general errors that are likely to occur when non-experts carry out the measurement process and countermeasures to deal with them, independent from the sensor technology that is being used. This includessomehints for designing appropriate interaction in smartphone applications.

Keywords: Clip-on sensor;Camera smartphone; Participatory sensing; Air quality monitoring; Ubiquitous computing; PM; Citizen science; Environmental sensing; Mobile computing; Light-Scattering; Low-Cost; Pervasive sensing; Non-Expert users; Particulate matter

Yuta Demura, Buho Hoshino, Yuki Sofue, Kenji Kai, Ts. Purevsuren, Kenji Baba, Jun Noda

Pp 21-30


The Inland Asian dry land, such as Gobi and desert of Mongolian Plateau is the most important dust source region in the world. However, in recent years the dust storms were found to have out-broken from the pastureland around the dry lakes, dry river channels and degraded pasturelands. Surrounding of dry lake beds, dry river channels and degraded pastures are the main new sources of Asian Dust Storms (ADS). In this study, based on satellite data, we measured of the Critical Ground Surface Condition (CGSC) (such as vegetation index (NDVI), soil moisture index (SMI), terrain roughness index (TRI), and soil particles) in ASD source region, to establish their influence on ADS and evaluate the mechanism of their occurrence.

Keywords: Asian dust emissions; The critical ground surface condition; Ground surface characteristics; Remote sensing

Anne E. Carey, Susan A. Welch, W. Berry Lyons

Pp 31-37


Herein we examine the solubility of dust collected during a long-term study of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in Columbus, Ohio, the 15th largest city in the United States. Samples were collected in a stationary, open, exposed rain collector so that between rain events dry deposition was obtained. Rain and snow samples collected during 2014–2016were analyzed for Ca2+and anions (Cl- and SO42-) by ion chromatography. Chloride concentrations are low, ranging from >1 μM L-1 to 26 μM L-1, and are uncorrelated to Ca2+. Soluble, sea salt-corrected Ca2+concentrations ranged from 6 to 124 μM L-1. Our results are compared to a longer term dataset (1999–2015) from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) of wet deposition samples collected 50 km southwest of Columbus. Mean sea salt-corrected Ca2+ concentration in our samples was 26 μM L-1. Mean sea salt-corrected Ca2+ concentrations in NADP samples was significantly lower (p=0.0001), at 5.6 μM L-1 with a range of 0.23–75 μM L-1. Dry deposition between precipitation events plays a major role in Ca2+ input to the city landscape. It is unclear whether this soluble calcium is from a local urban source or a regional agricultural source. SEM analysis is used to determine mineralogy of dust input to our samples and possible source of the dissolved calcium observed.

Keywords: Urban deposition; Calcium; Columbus, Ohio, USA

Melisa A. Diaz, Hongbin Yu, Kelly M. Deuerling, Gerhard Wörner, Christopher B. Gardner, Russell S. Harmon, Steven T. Goldsmith, Anne E. Carey, W. Berry Lyons

Pp 38-43


The long-range transport of Saharan dust to South America, the Caribbean Basin, and even the southern United States has been demonstrated by both remotely sensed satellite data and direct measurements. In this work, we use Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data and deposition models developed by Yu et al. (2015) and African dust geochemical data (Muhs et al., 2010; Moreno et al., 2006) to calculate the elemental influx to the landscape in Panama. These deposition values are compared to our own soil geochemical data collected from soil pits and rock data from the Upper Rio Chagres watershed of central Panama. The CALIOP-based estimate of Saharan dust deposition to Panama is 50 kg ha-1 yr-1 and the flux of phosphorus is 35-122 g P ha-1 yr-1. Dust-derived Ca can add as much as ~4% to total topsoil Ca concentrations. Lower dust contributions were calculated for other key elements, such as K (~0.35%) and P (0.03%). Contributions of dust to soil depend on bedrock type, and vary seasonally, though spatial variation is likely to exist as well.

Keywords: Panama; African dust; Atmospheric deposition; Phosporous; Nutrient cycling

Ignacio Fernández-Olmo, Carmen Laita, Ana Hernández-Pellón, Mariano Puente

Pp 44-49


The aim of this work is to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soluble fraction of the bulk atmospheric deposition in four sites of a small region located in northern Spain (Cantabria). Samples were collected monthly for two years at an urban site (Santander), and for one year at an industrial (Maliaño), rural (Bárcena Mayor) and traffic (Cabezón de la Sal) sites. Samples were filtered and the filtrate was extracted, concentrated, purified and analysed for 15 PAHs: acenaphthylene (ACY), acenaphthene (ACE), fluorene (FLU), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DahA), and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP). The highest deposition fluxes of PAHs were found at the industrial site (Maliaño); the total PAH fluxes at the other sites were similar. Box plots of the PAH levels found in the literature in wet and bulk deposition samples were used to compare the values observed in this work. FLA, BaA, PHE and PYR were the most abundant PAHs at the industrial site. At the urban and rural site, the profile found in the deposition samples was similar: PHE>FLA>BaA>PYR. The traffic site showed a different profile: PYR>ANT>FLU>FLA. A preliminary source identification study was made by calculating diagnostic ratios of some PAH isomers (FLA/(FLA+PYR) and BaA/(BaA+CHR)); these ratios were compared with those found for the main PAH industrial and non-industrial sources in the region.

Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Bulk atmospheric deposition; Diagnostic ratio

Ana Hernández-Pellón, Ignacio Fernández-Olmo

Pp 50-55


The aim of this work is to monitor the manganese levels in the particulate matter throughout the Santander Bay, an urban/industrial area located in the region of Cantabria (northern Spain). Previous studies developed in the region have shown high concentrations of manganese in ambient air according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, most likely due to the presence of a ferromanganese alloy plant in the area. An intensive PM10 sampling campaign has been carried out for a year in nine monitoring sites (one per month) by means of a low volume sequential sampling device (2.3 m3/h) equipped with a 15 filter cartridge. 28 samples have been collected in each location onto 47 mm quartz fiber filters. The filters were subjected to microwave assisted acid digestion (HNO3:H2O2 with a mixture of 8:2 ml) based on UNE-EN 14902:2006. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was then used for metal analysis. In addition to Mn, also Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb and Pb were analyzed. According to the results obtained in the present sampling campaign, the highest daily manganese level at Santander Bay reached 3200 ng/m3 with a monthly average higher than the 150 ng/m3 established by the WHO as an annual average guideline value in six monitoring sites (up to 713.9 ng/m3). The highest manganese levels were found at N-NE of the ferroalloy plant, which agrees with the prevailing winds (S/SW). Although monthly samplings have been carried out in each location, these results suggest that manganese concentrations in ambient air in some sites of the Santander Bay would exceed the WHO recommendation. In addition, the strong linear relationship found between Mn and V, Fe, As, Cd and Pb in the vicinities of the plant suggests that the presence of some of these metals in the area may be also related to this activity.

Keywords: Manganese; Particulate matter; Ferromanganese alloy industry

Patrice Hubert, Hervé Herbin,Olivier Pujol, Nicolas Visez, Denis Petitprez

Pp 56-61


High spectral resolution extinction measurements of calibrated particlesfrom the UV to the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum have been obtained to derive accurate values of the corresponding complex refractive indices. The latter are generally performed through absorbance or transmittance measurements from bulk material or diluted particles in solid pellets leading to possible experimental limitation, such as lack of knowledge of the particle size distribution.
Calibrated amorphous silicasphere particles (99.9%, AngströmSphere) of diameters D = 0.5 and 1 µm were dispersed by a mechanical way in a flow of nitrogen (5 L/min) within a glass container. The continuous flow of aerosol particles was introduced into a 10 m multi-pass cell within an FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) spectrometer (Antaris IGS Analyser, Thermo Scientific) and a 1 m single-pass cell within a UV-visible-NIR spectrometer (MAYA 2000 PRO, Ocean Optics). Aerosol size distributions have been measured at the exit of the spectrometers either with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer spectrometer (TSI APS 3321), or with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (TSI SMPS 3936L75).
The complex refractive indices are determined by combining Kramers-Krönig relations, the Mie theory and an iterative process. This allows minimizing errors in the retrieval procedure.

Keywords: Optical properties; Complex refractive indices; Mineral aerosol; Extinction spectra; Size distribution; Optimal Estimation Method (OEM)

Pavel Kishcha, Arlindo da Silva, Boris Starobinets, Pinhas Alpert

Pp 62-66


Previous studies showed that, over the global ocean, there is no noticeable hemispheric asymmetry in cloud fraction (CF). This cloud symmetry contributes to the balance in solar radiation reaching the sea surface in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. By contrast, over the tropical Atlantic, the CF hemispheric asymmetry takes place. The tropical Atlantic (30N – 30S) is frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions. Based on MODIS cloud fraction data during a ten-year study period, we found that these dust intrusions contribute to significant cloud cover up to 0.8 – 0.9 along the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The area of SAL with significant CF is characterized by limited precipitation, indicating that clouds along the SAL are not developed enough. Meteorological conditions below the temperature inversion at the SAL base include high atmospheric humidity and the presence of large amounts of settling dust particles together with marine aerosols. Being below the temperature inversion and acting as efficient CCN, Saharan dust particles coated with sea-salt contribute to the formation of shallow stratocumulus clouds. Significant cloud fraction under the base of SAL, together with clouds over the Atlantic Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, contributes to the 20% hemispheric CF asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Saharan dust is also the major contributor to the pronounced hemispheric aerosol asymmetry over the tropical Atlantic, based on MERRAero aerosol reanalysis data. These two factors could lead to an imbalance in strong solar radiation (which reaches the sea surface between the tropical North and South Atlantic), affecting climate formation in the tropical Atlantic.

Keywords: Shallow stratocumulus clouds; Desert dust; Saharan air layer; Sahara; Atlantic Ocean

Simone Lolli, Fabio Madonna, Marco Rosoldi, Gelsomina Pappalardo

Pp 67-71


The purpose of this work is to quantify the sensitivity of the Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG) Radiative Transfer Model to estimate the aerosol net radiative forcing with respect different lidar instruments/algorithms/techniques applied to the retrieval of the extinction coefficient, used as input parameter of FLG. The sensitivity analysis is carried out calculating the radiative forcing from a dust layer retrieved from lidar data with different noise level and effective vertical resolutions and from real lidar data measurements. Results of the sensitivity analysis on the Radiative Forcing (RF) estimation are quantitatively discussed.

Keywords: Radiative transfer; Lidar; Aerosols; Cirrus clouds

Victor Lyubov, Evgeniya Popova, Anatoly Popov

Pp 72-77


Quantity of soot particles in the flue gases of energy facilitiesis a criterion of effectiveness for organization of the burning process. Several heat producing units do not provide the required energy and environmental efficiency, which results in irrational use of energy resources and acute pollution of environment. The paper summarizes the results of experimental study of solid particles emission from wide range of capacity boilers burning different fossil fuels; lists emissions of fine soot particles (PM 2.5); structure, composition and dimensions of entrained particles with the use of electronic scanning microscope Zeiss SIGMA VP were also studied. The results reveal an impact of several factors on soot particles emission.

Keywords: Boiler; Fuel; Coefficient of effectiveness; Harmful substances; Soot particles emissions; Heat losses

Eva Merico, Antonio Donateo, Andrea Gambaro, Daniela Cesari, Elena Gregoris, Elena Barbaro, Adelaide Dinoi, Giorgio Giovanelli, Samuele Masieri, Daniele Contini

Pp 78-83


In recent years, shipping emissions are a growing concern because of their impacts on air quality and climate in coastal areas. In particular, in-port ship emissions are harmful for local communities since the proximity of the main harbours to urban agglomerates. Few studies are focused on size distribution and number concentration of emitted particles, especially at low loads (e.g., manoeuvring and hotelling). In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to gaseous pollutants and particles of different sizes (range 0.009-32 µm) distinguishing manoeuvring and hotelling phase (including loading/unloading activities) are reported. Results show that the estimated contributions of the two phases are different in terms of size distributions of the emitted particles and could be efficiently described using four size intervals. Hotelling has greater impact on particles with diameter Dp<0.25 and Dp>1 in number concentration while manoeuvring phase contributes substantially on mass concentration of particles between 0.4 and 2.5 µm. Finally, harbour logistic plays a significant role in determining the total impact of shipping of the nearby coastal areas, especially in terms of PNC (particle number concentration) that need further studies.

Keywords: Shipping impacts; Particle number concentration; Size distributions

Ashok Kumar Pokharel, Michael L. Kaplan, Stephanie Fiedler

Pp 84-93


Meso-α/β scale observational and meso-β/γ scale numerical model analyses were performed to study the atmospheric dynamics responsible for generating Harmattan dust storm. For this dust storm case study, MERRA reanalysis datasets, WRF simulated very high resolution datasets, MODIS/Aqua and Terra images, EUMETSAT images, NAAPS aerosol modelling plots, surface observations, and rawinsonde soundings were analyzed. The analysis of this dust storm shows (1) the presence of a well-organized baroclinic synoptic scale system, (2) this dust storm composed of two dust storm events, (3) small scale dust emission events (first dust storm event) which occurred prior to the formation of the primary large-scale dust storms (second dust storm event), (4) cross Atlas Mountain flows which produced a strong leeside inversion layer prior to the large scale dust storm, (5) the presence of thermal wind imbalance in the exit region of the mid-tropospheric jet streak in the lee of the Atlas Mountains shortly after the time of the inversion formation, (6) major dust storm formation was accompanied by large magnitude ageostrophic isallobaric low-level winds as part of the meso-β scale adjustment process, (7) substantial low-level turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and (8) the emission of the dust occurred initially in narrow meso-β scale zones parallel to the mountains, and later reached the meso-α scale when suspended dust was transported away from the mountains. In addition to this there were additional meso-β and meso-γ scale adjustment processes resulting in Kelvin waves and the thermally-forced MPS circulation, respectively. The Kelvin wave preceded a cold pool accompanying the air behind the large scale cold front instrumental in the major dust storm. The Kelvin wave organized the major dust storm in a narrow zone parallel to the mountains before it expanded upscale (meso-α to synoptic scale). The thermally-forced meso-γ scale adjustment processes, which occurred in the canyons, resulted in the numerous dust streaks leading to the entry of the dust into the atmosphere due to the presence of significant vertical motion and the TKE generation. This indicates that there were meso-β to meso-γ scale adjustment processes at the lower levels after the imbalance within the exit region of the upper level jet streak and these processes were responsible for causing this large scale dust storm (synoptic scale).

Keywords: Jetlet; Thermal ridge; Jet adjustment; Ageostrophic/isallobaric wind; Vorticity; TKE

Aruna Ravi, Antriksh Luthra, Fernando L. Teixeira, James V. Coe

Pp 94-99


A Mie-Bruggeman model is used to predict the shape and orientation-averaged infrared extinction and absorption spectra of a Saharan dust sample of mixed composition and size. The common minerals of atmospheric dust samples, clays in this case, have strong infrared transitions which match the particle size and probing wavelengths giving rise to interesting lineshape distortions. These distortions may need to be considered for quantitative analysis of infrared spectra measurements of atmospheric dust samples.

Keywords: Predict infrared extinction; Absorption spectra; Atmospheric dust mixtures; Lineshape distortions with particle size; Mie-Bruggeman model

Guillaume Schmidt, Gwenaëlle Trouvé, Gontrand Leyssens, Cornelius Schönnenbeck, Fabrice Cazier, Dorothée Dewaele, Paul Genevray, Stéphane Labbé, Yann Denance, Céline Le-Dreff, Noël Adam

Pp 100-105


This work aims to study the influence of the nature of biomass fuel and its pre-treatment on both emission factors of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated by new domestic heat generation in real use conditions. Indeed, these last years, domestic wood heating manufacturers have highly optimised combustion conditions, thanks to new technologies development, to respect the new European legislation proposed in 2022. In order to increase the environmental performance of these installations, some properties of the biomass fuel used (type, size, thermal reactivity, chemical composition, moisture rate, ash content …) were linked to the emission factors of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated by combustion.
We focus on beech pretreatment by washing process at laboratory scale. Both untreated and washed woods were combusted in a pellet stove in order to compare the environmental impact of the wood washing process on gaseous and particulate emissions.

Keywords: Wood; Combustion; Washing pretreatment; Particulate emissions; Gaseous emissions; Minerals

Atsushi Shimizu, Nobuo Sugimoto, Ichiro Matsui, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Yoshitaka Jin

Pp 106-110


A lidar network constructed by Mie-scattering lidars with polarization capabilities, named AD-Net (Asian dust and aerosol lidar observation network) has been operated in east Asian region to study the four dimensional distributions of various aerosol particles in this area. Especially Asian dust (Kosa) is significant atmospheric phenomena and has some environmental impact including health effects on human. Nowadays National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is operating 20 lidars in collaboration with many organizations, and supplying obtained optical properties in the near real-time to the public. Two components of extinction coefficient (dust extinction and spherical particle extinction) are useful to indicate concentrations of both Asian dust particles and anthropogenic particles, respectively. Dust extinction is utilized in the epidemiology, and the result shows that Asian dust has some health impact in the east Asia. Expansion of lidar equipment (Raman channels, high spectral resolution) are also planned in AD-Net.

Keywords: Lidar; Asian dust; Vertical distributions; Environmental impact

Saurabh Sonwani

Pp 111-116


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistence organic pollutants (POPs). Several PAHs are known toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. Understanding the contributions of the various emission sources is critical to appropriately managing PAH levels in the environment. In the present study, PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites (UA and CR) in Delhi during the period of monsoon and winter season from July 2013 to January 2014. The concentrations of 10 selected PAHs in aerosols were quantified for source apportionment analysis. Their total amount at CR ranged from 18 to 161 ngm-3 whereas at UA it varies from 15 to 116 ngm-3. The sources of PAHs in Delhi were determined by using source apportionment methods (molecular diagnostic ratios). At CR, vehicular emissions in the form of diesel and gasoline exhaust were major emission sources. On the contrary, mixed type of sources (coal combustion, wood combustion and gasoline and diesel engine emissions) were the contributor of particulate PAHs at UA in Delhi. The results clearly indicate that the major PAHs emission sources in the Delhi are traffic emission, coal combustion, and wood combustion related sources. These sources are responsible for high levels of PAHs which draws attention towards immediate measures for PAHs control in Delhi.

Keywords: PAHs; Source apportionment; Diagnostic ratio; Delhi

Antonio Speranza, Rosa Caggiano, Salvatore Margiotta, Vito Summa, Serena Trippetta

Pp 117-122


The study aims to identify the source signature of the particulate matter using the ratios between the chemical tracer (Tr) concentrations (i.e., Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, NH4+, Ni, NO3-, Si, SO42-, Sr, Ti and V) content in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 simultaneous measurements. Studies regarding the tracer concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were considered and the corresponding ratios (i.e. PM1(Tr)/PM10(Tr), PM2.5(Tr)/PM10(Tr) and (PM2.5(Tr)-PM1(Tr))/(PM10(Tr) –PM1(Tr))) were calculated and displayed using a dedicated triangular diagram. Results point out that the data relating to Al, Ca, Fe, Si, Sr and Ti (tracers mainly attributed to crustal sources) and to Cl, Mg and Na (tracers mainly related as sea-salt sources) are usually displayed towards the lower right region of the triangular diagram, where the tracer concentrations of the coarse size fraction are larger than the tracer concentrations of the fine and submicrometric size fractions. The data corresponding to Ni and V (tracers generally attributed to combustion sources) are displayed towards the upper region of the triangular diagram, where the tracer concentrations of the fine and submicrometric size fractions are larger than the tracer concentrations of the coarse size fraction. The tracer concentrations of the intermodal size fraction may not be negligible with respect to the tracer concentrations of coarse and submicrometric size fractions in this region. Finally, the data corresponding to tracers with more than one characteristic source, such as K (tracer interpreted as city dust and biomass burning) and SO4- (tracer related to combustion sources, secondary aerosols and long-range transport combined with NH4+ and NO3-) may be displayed on different regions of the triangular diagram, depending on their different emission sources. Therefore, the triangular diagram can be useful for grouping tracers on the basis of their characteristic source signature.

Keywords: PM; Chemical tracers; Triangular diagram

Rita Sturmlechner, Gabriel Reichert, Harald Stressler, Christoph Schmidl, Manuel Schwabl, Walter Haslinger, Heike Öhler, Johannes Bachmaier, Robert Mack, Hans Hartmann, Marius Wöhler

Pp 123-128


Domestic biomass heating using firewood and wood pellets is one of the most important sources regarding air pollution, especially for particulate matter (PM). Current PM thresholds refer to standard type testing results, which are conducted under laboratory conditions and do not reflect real-life operation. Consequently the beReal project was initiated aiming at the development of a new testing method better reflecting real-life for firewood room heaters (acc. EN 13240) and pellet stoves (acc. EN 14785). At the end of the project the final beReal method should be implemented in a European quality label.

Keywords: Firewood/pellet combustion; Domestic heating; Standard type testing; Real-life performance