ProScience – vol. 4 Pages 1-47 (1 December 2017)
Editor: Saverio Fiore
2nd International Conference on
Applied Mineralogy & Advanced Materials
Copyright © Author(s) 2017. Published by Digilabs Srls.
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Agnese Attanasio*, Alessandro Largo
This work presents the promising results of the SUS-CON “SUStainable, Innovative and Energy-
Efficient CONcrete, based on the Integration of All-Waste Materials” European project founded by
7FP (duration 2012-2015), dealing with the valorization of industrial wastes used as raw materials for
sustainable building solutions. SUS-CON project aimed at developing new technology routes to
integrate waste materials (e.g., ashes from thermal-power plants; slags from metallurgical plants;
post-consuming plastics used as aggregates and binders) in the production cycle of concrete. The
innovative concretes, developed on lab and industrial scale for ready-mixed and pre-cast applications,
include up to 100% by weight of industrials wastes. The materials result lightweight with high
thermal insulation performance, cost-effective and eco-sustainable with reduced environmental
impact (low embodied energy and reduced CO2 emissions). The developed building solutions might
contribute to the reduction of industrial wastes disposal, with positive impacts also on the
construction sector costs.
Keywords: SUS-CON Project; Industrial Wastes; Eco-Sostainable Concretes; Recycling
Valorization of construction and demolition wastes: RE4 building solutions
Agnese Attanasio*, Alessandro Largo
This work presents the ambitious challenges of the RE4 “REuse and REcycling of CDW materials and
structures in energy efficient pREfabricated elements for building REfurbishment and construction”
European project founded by H2020 (duration 2016-2020), dealing with the valorization of
construction and demolition wastes used as raw materials for sustainable building solutions. RE4
project aims at radically modify the construction process by promoting new technological solutions
for the design and development of structural and non-structural pre-fabricated elements with high
degree of recycled materials from construction and demolition waste (e.g., concretes, bricks, tiles,
fine fractions or lightweight materials e.g. plastic, wood) and reused structures from the partial or
total demolition of buildings available in Europe. The Project is intended for the development of
innovative, cost-effective and eco-compatible building solutions and also allows the reduction of nonrenewable
natural raw materials consumption.
Keywords: RE4 Project; Construction and Demolition Wastes; Eco-Sustainable Building Elements; Recycling;
Silvana Gjyli*, Arjan Korpa, Fabrizio Cavani, Claudia Belviso
Fly ash is a by-product of thermal power plants partly disposed of in landfills. It is composed of
minerals and amorphous substances, i.e., quartz, mullite, hematite and magnetite, unburned coal
particles and amorphous aluminosilicate. Zeolites are tectosilicates characterised by a threedimensional
network of tetrahedral units that form a system of interconnected pores. The substitution
of silicon with aluminium produces a net negative charge which is balanced by the presence of an
extra cation in the framework. Due to their structure and their excellent ion exchange and sorption
properties, zeolites are useful in a number of applications. Many literature data have documented fly
ash conversion into zeolite.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different parameters on properties of zeolite
formed from fly ash. With this aim, crystallization time (from 1 to 72 h), alkaline ratio (0.75 and
1.25), type of water (distilled water and seawater), and action of acid treatment were investigated. The
experiments were performed at 40, 60, 90 °C. The synthetic products were characterized by X-ray
diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry(XRF),
Infrared spectroscopy (IR), and Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) method.
The results cofirm that the investigated parameters have significant effects on the structural properties
of zeolite synthesised.
Keywords: Fly Ash; Acid Pre-Treatment; Zeolite Synthesis
Adriana Guatame-Garcia*, Mike Buxton
Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used in the industry for the manufacturing of filters, where
diatomite is preferred due to its low chemical reactivity and high porosity. Diatomite deposits with
major amounts of mineral impurities, such as carbonates, present a problem in the production DE. In
this study, samples from a diatomite deposit with known presence of carbonate were analysed. With
the aim of estimating the carbonate content, the samples were analysed with infrared (IR)
spectroscopy. The association between the carbonate and diatomite was characterised using thin
sections and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). Based on the infrared spectra,
the diatomite ore was classified according to the carbonate content. The microscopy images showed
laminae, cement and coating of carbonate around the diatomite. These findings indicate that the IR
classification along with the type of carbonate association can optimise the production of DE.
Keywords: Diatomite, Carbonate, Impurities, Ore Classification, Infrared Spectroscopy
Olga Kotova*, Igor Shabalin, Dmitry Shushkov, Yu Wang
The fly ash, a by-product of coal combustion in thermal power plants, is one of the most complex and
abundant of anthropogenic materials, which large accumulations represent a serious environmental
threat. To reduce the environmental burden and improve the economic benefits of energy production,
the science and industry focus on the transformation of coal combustion by-products into new
functional materials. The fly ash from power plant burning coal of Pechora basin (Russia) and
synthesized products were studied by modern analytical methods. As a result of the hydrothermal
reaction several types of zeolites were synthesized from the fly ash: analcime, faujasite (zeolite X)
and gismondine (zeolite P). It was shown that the experimental conditions (temperature, reaction time
and alkali concentration) have a significant influence on the type of zeolite and its content in the
reaction products. The series of experiments resulted in schematic diagram of zeolites crystallization.
New data on the sorption-structural characteristics and cation-exchange parameters for uranium,
radium, thorium, ammonium, strontium, barium were obtained.
Keywords: Coal Fly Ash; Sinthetic Zeolites; Sorption; Radionuclides; Uran; Thorium; Radium; Barium;
Pyrometallurgical recovery of tin from tailings of Penouta Sn-Ta-Nb deposit
Félix A. López*, Irene García-Díaz, Olga Rodríguez Largo, Francisco Polonio, Teresa Llorens
A concentrate obtained of a mining waste containing mainly cassiterite from the Penouta mine
(provided by Strategic Minerals S.L) was reduced for the production of Sn. The fluxes used in
pyrometallurgical reduction reactions were CaCO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3 and borax; the reducing agent
was graphite. The greatest recovery of Sn (>95%) was obtained when using CaCO3 as a flux, with a
Sn purity of 96%. A slag is also produced during the recovery. of the Sn, equivalent to 25% of the
mass of the initial concentrate. Its content in Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 reached 45%, adding further value
to the mine tailings.
Keywords: Cassiterite; Columbotantalite; Carbothermic reduction; Tin
Synthesis, characterization of rare earth-alkaline earth oxide compounds
Chimednorov Otgonbayar*, Herbert Pöllmann
In this study, MR2O4 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba and R = Yb, Y, Dy, Eu, Sm) with orthorhombic structure and
MRAlO4 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba and R = Yb, Y, Dy, Eu, Sm, Nd, La) with tetragonal structure were
prepared using sol gel based Pechini method. The influence of ionic radii of alkaline earth and rare
earth elements on the stability of the phases in each synthesis series is discussed. The phase
composition of the obtained powders was established by PXRD, the morphology by SEM.
Furthermore the hydraulic behaviour of SrEu2O4, SrAl2O4 and SrEuAlO4 were studied by isoperibolic
Keywords: Sol Gel Method; Alkaline Earth Rare Earth Oxides; XRD; SEM; Isoperibolic Calorimetry
L.A. Vaisberg, A.M. Gerasimov
The development of dry mineral process is a priority issue in the mining industry aimed at saving raw
materials and energy resources. In spite of this, industrial coal beneficiation technologies are currently
based on water processes although use of such wet processes entails certain environmental and
economic consequences. The development of an efficient dry coal beneficiation technique becomes
possible on the condition of preliminary heat treatment of coal without the access of air and
subsequent ash removal through dry electromagnetic separation. These chemical transformations will
open up new processing opportunities.
In this contribution, we report the results on a study performed on sample of high-ash Kuzbass coal
collected from the Karakan coal deposit in order to study the properties of coal under thermal and
chemical conditioning for dry beneficiation .